Types of Buses in Load Flow Analysis


There are mainly three types of buses in the study of load flow analysis.

PV Bus or Generator bus

  • It is also called as PV bus. 
  • The voltage magnitude and active power at this bus are specified. 
  • The reactive power and phase angle δ of the voltage are to be computed.

Load bus or PQ bus

  • This bus is called as PQ bus. 
  • The active power and reactive power are specified at this bus. 
  • The magnitude of voltage and phase angle are to be computed at this bus.

Slack bus ( Swing bus / Reference bus )

  •  One bus is chosen as swing bus or reference bus in the generation buses.
  •  The magnitude and phase angle of the voltage are specified at this bus.
  •  The phase angle of the voltage is set to be zero. 
  • The active and reactive power to be computer at this bus. 
  • The concept of swing bus is fictitious because I2R losses of the system are not known advance for the load flow studies.
  • If the slack bus is not specified, generation bus usually with maximum active power P is taken as reference bus.

Types of buses

Specified Quantities

Unknown Quantities

PV Bus

P and ǀ V ǀ

Q and δ

PQ Bus

P and Q

ǀ V ǀ and δ

Reference bus

ǀ V ǀ and δ

P and Q


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