**E – vehicle price, battery capacity, charging time and
driving range in km**

**Two Wheelers**

The details of two wheelers electric vehicles is given here. All the electric two wheelers are equipped with lithium-ion battery

Basic of electrical and electronics engineering concept

Science helps to understand things in a better way. We know about fluid but science helps to understand different aspects of it in a better ...

**E – vehicle price, battery capacity, charging time and
driving range in km**

**Two Wheelers**

The details of two wheelers electric vehicles is given here. All the electric two wheelers are equipped with lithium-ion battery

**Benefits of E – Vehicles**

- Nowadays, E – vehicles are slowly takes place by petrol / diesel vehicles. Electrical Vehicless ( EV ) have zero tailpipe emissions and create better environment.
- In this article, we will discuss advantages of E – Vehicles.

__Tandem ( Series ) Connection of Two Port Network__

Two networks are
connected in series such that output of one network is connected to input of
another network, such type of connection is called as Tandem connection of two
port network. It is considered that network 1 is connected to network 2 in
tandem.

Let

A1, B1, C1 and D1
– Constant of network 1

A2, B2, C2 and D2
– Constant of network 2

__Network 1__

V_{S} = A1V’ + B1I’……. ( 1 )

I_{S }= C1 V’ + D1 I’……..( 2 )

Where

V_{S} =
Sending end voltage

I_{S }=
Sending end current_{}

V’ = Receiving end
voltage of network 1

I’ = Receiving end
voltage of network 1

__Network 2__

V’= A2V_{R} + B2I_{R}……. ( 3
)

I’_{
}= C2V_{R} + D2 I_{R}……..( 4 )

Where

V’ = Sending end
voltage

I’ = Sending end
current_{}

V_{R} =
Receiving end voltage of network 2

I_{R} =
Receiving end voltage of network 2

Substitute
equation ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) into equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

V_{S} = A1
( A2V_{R} + B2I_{R} ) + B1 ( C2V_{R} + D2 I_{R}
)……. ( 5 )

V_{S} =
A1A2 V_{R }+ A1 B2I_{R }+ B1 C2V_{R} + B1D2 I_{R}

V_{S}
= ( A1A2 + B1 C2 )V_{R} + ( A1 B2 + B1D2 )I_{R }….. ( 6
)

Compare equation (
6 ) with Vs = AV_{R} + BI_{R}

A = A1A2 + B1 C2

B = A1 B2 + B1D2

I_{S }= C1
( A2V_{R} + B2I_{R} ) + D1 ( C2V_{R} + D2 I_{R}
)

I_{S }= C1
A2V_{R} + C1B2I_{R} + D1 C2V_{R} + D1D2 I_{R}

I_{S }= ( C1
A2 + D1 C2 ) V_{R} + ( C1B2 + D1D2 ) I_{R}…….( 7 )

Compare equation (
7 ) with Is = CV_{R} + DI_{R}

C = C1 A2 + D1 C2 and

D = C1B2 + D1D2

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**Summary, constant
of two port networks when they are connected in series or tandem.**

A = A1A2
+ B1 C2

B = A1 B2
+ B1D2

C = C1 A2
+ D1 C2 and

D = C1B2
+ D1D2

**Important formula of ABCD ( Two Port ) Network of
Transmission Line**

**Short Transmission Line**

A = 1

B = Z

C = 0 and

D = 1

__ABCD Parameters of Two Parallel Transmission Line or Networks__

Let us consider
that the two-transmission line or network is in parallel. In this theory, we
find out equivalent A, B, C and D parameters of parallel networks or
transmission line

Let

V_{S} =
Sending end voltage to neutral

V_{R} =
Receiving end voltage to neutral

**Analysis of Long Transmission Line ( Rigorous Method of Solution of Long
Transmission Line )**

A long transmission line is considered as infinite length. It is not possible to calculate all the parameters for infinite long length therefore here we consider only small length dx in order to evaluate whole line. Let us consider that length of line is dx at x distance from receiving end of the transmission line.

**ABCD parameters of medium transmission line : Nominal
π method**

The total capacitance of the transmission line is divided into two parts, half at the sending end side and another half at the receiving end side in the nominal π method. All the parameters are given considering three phase transmission line.