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Waste to Energy │Bio Gas │Bio CNG

  Generation of waste from industries and urbanization leads to threat to environment. This article is related to types of organic waste and...

23/04/2022

E - vehicles price, Battery Capacity & Charging hours

 E – vehicle price, battery capacity, charging time and driving range in km

Two Wheelers

The details of two wheelers electric vehicles is given here.  All the electric two wheelers are equipped with lithium-ion battery

Advantages of Electric Vehicles

 

Benefits of E – Vehicles

  • Nowadays, E – vehicles are slowly takes place by petrol / diesel vehicles. Electrical Vehicless ( EV ) have zero tailpipe emissions and create better environment. 
  • In this article, we will discuss advantages of E – Vehicles.

22/04/2022

Two Port Networks are in Tandem or Series

Tandem ( Series ) Connection of Two Port Network

Two networks are connected in series such that output of one network is connected to input of another network, such type of connection is called as Tandem connection of two port network. It is considered that network 1 is connected to network 2 in tandem.


two-port-networks-are-in-tandem-or-series.png

Let

A1, B1, C1 and D1 – Constant of network 1

A2, B2, C2 and D2 – Constant of network 2

Network 1

VS = A1V’ + B1I’……. ( 1 )

IS = C1 V’ + D1 I’……..( 2 )

Where

VS = Sending end voltage

IS = Sending end current

V’ = Receiving end voltage of network 1

I’ = Receiving end voltage of network 1

Network 2

V’= A2VR + B2IR……. ( 3 )

 I’ = C2VR + D2 IR……..( 4 )

Where

V’ = Sending end voltage

I’ = Sending end current

VR = Receiving end voltage of network 2

IR = Receiving end voltage of network 2

Substitute equation ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) into equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 )

VS = A1 ( A2VR + B2IR ) + B1 ( C2VR + D2 IR )……. ( 5 )

VS = A1A2 VR + A1 B2IR + B1 C2VR + B1D2 IR

 VS  = ( A1A2 + B1 C2 )VR + ( A1 B2 + B1D2 )IR ….. ( 6 )

Compare equation ( 6 ) with Vs = AVR + BIR

A = A1A2 + B1 C2

B = A1 B2 + B1D2

IS = C1 ( A2VR + B2IR ) + D1 ( C2VR + D2 IR )

IS = C1 A2VR + C1B2IR + D1 C2VR + D1D2 IR

IS = ( C1 A2 + D1 C2 ) VR + ( C1B2 + D1D2 ) IR…….( 7 )

Compare equation ( 7 ) with Is = CVR + DIR

C = C1 A2 + D1 C2 and

D = C1B2 + D1D2

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Summary, constant of two port networks when they are connected in series or tandem.

A = A1A2 + B1 C2

B = A1 B2 + B1D2

C = C1 A2 + D1 C2 and

D = C1B2 + D1D2


17/04/2022

Important Formulas : ABCD Parameters of Transmission Line

 

Important formula of ABCD ( Two Port ) Network of Transmission Line

Short Transmission Line

A = 1

B = Z

C = 0 and

D = 1

15/04/2022

ABCD Parameters of Two Parallel Transmission Line

 

ABCD Parameters of Two Parallel Transmission Line or Networks

Let us consider that the two-transmission line or network is in parallel. In this theory, we find out equivalent A, B, C and D parameters of parallel networks or transmission line

Let

VS = Sending end voltage to neutral

VR = Receiving end voltage to neutral

ABCD Parameters of Long Transmission Line

Analysis of Long Transmission Line ( Rigorous Method of Solution of Long Transmission Line )

A long transmission line is considered as infinite length. It is not possible to calculate all the parameters for infinite long length therefore here we consider only small length dx in order to evaluate whole line. Let us consider that length of line is dx at x distance from receiving end of the transmission line.

13/04/2022

ABCD Parameters of Nominal π method

 

ABCD parameters of medium transmission line : Nominal π method

The total capacitance of the transmission line is divided into two parts, half at the sending end side and another half at the receiving end side in the nominal π method. All the parameters are given considering three phase transmission line.