What is Solenoid? How does it work?

Solenoid Coil

  • A coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of cylinder is called as solenoid. 
  • The solenoid is a piece of equipment which generate magnetic fields.
  • Figure show a long solenoid which is wound by number of turns. 
  • The turns are closely wound and insulated with each other. The turns are wound in the form of helix.


Solenoid Magnetic Field

  • The net magnetic field is the vector sum of the fields due to all the turns.
  • The magnetic field at the center of the solenoid is uniform whereas the magnetic field at the exterior point Q is weak approaches close to zero.
  • The field inside solenoid is parallel to x – axis. 
  • The solenoid is used for obtaining uniform magnetic field. 
  • The direction of the field is given by the right-hand rule. 
  • The magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid is similar to that of current carrying conductor. 
  • One end of the solenoid behaves as magnetic N pole whereas another end behaves like S pole. 
  • The magnetic field is uniform inside the solenoid. 
  • The magnetic field in the current carrying solenoid is directly proportional to

  1. Current flows through it
  2. Number of turns per unit length
  3. It also depends upon core material of the solenoid.

  • If soft iron rod is used as core material, the magnetic field strength increases.

Solenoid Function

  • The solenoid is used to obtain uniform magnetic field.

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