What is Solenoid? How does it work?

 Definition of Solenoid

  • A coil of many circular turns of insulated copper wire wrapped closely in the shape of cylinder is called as solenoid.

  • The solenoid is a piece of equipment which generate magnetic fields.
  •  Figure show a long solenoid which is wound by number of turns. 
  • The turns are closely wound and insulated with each other. 
  • The turns are wound in the form of helix. 
  • The net magnetic field is the vector sum of the fields due to all the turns.
  •  The magnetic field at the center of the solenoid is uniform whereas the magnetic field at the exterior point Q is weak approaches close to zero.
  •  The field inside solenoid is parallel to x – axis. 


  • The solenoid is used for obtaining uniform magnetic field. 
  • The direction of the field is given by the right hand rule. 
  • The magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid is similar to that of current carrying conductor. 
  • One end of the solenoid behaves as magnetic N pole whereas other end behaves like S pole. 
  • The magnetic field is uniform inside the solenoid.

The magnetic field in the current carrying solenoid is directly proportional to

  • Current flows through it
  • Number of turns per unit length
  • It also depends upon core material of the solenoid.

If soft iron rod is used as core material, the magnetic field strength increases.

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