Majority Charge Carrier & Minority Charge Carrier

  • There are no free charge carriers at 0 oK in the pure Silicon / Germanium.
  •  However, when the room temperature increases, some of the covalent bonds are broken by heat energy. 
  • This will result in electron – hole pairs are produced; it is called as thermally generated charge carriers
  • They are very small in quantity. If acceptor type impurities are added to pure germanium, an intrinsic semiconductor is converted into P – type semiconductor. 
  • This will produce large number of positive holes and small number of thermally generated electrons.


Finally we can say that

  • The P type semiconductor consists of greater number of holes than electrons therefore it consist of holes as majority charge carrier and electron as minority charge carrier
  • Similarly the N type semiconductor consists of electrons as majority charge carriers and holes as minority charge carriers.

Types of Material

Majority charge carriers

Minority charge carriers

P type semiconductor



N type semiconductor




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