Majority Charge Carrier & Minority Charge Carrier

Thermally Generated Charge Carriers

  • There are no free charge carriers at 0 oK in the pure silicon / Germanium. However, when the room temperature increases, some of the covalent bonds are broken by heat energy. 
  • This will result in electron – hole pairs are produced; it is called as thermally generated charge carriers. 
  • They are very small in quantity. 


Holes and Electrons

  • If acceptor type impurities are added to pure germanium, an intrinsic semiconductor is converted into P – type semiconductor. 
  • This will produce large number of positive holes and small number of thermally generated electrons. Finally, we can say that
  • The P type semiconductor consists of greater number of holes than electrons. 
  • Therefore, it consists of holes as majority charge carrier and electron as minority charge carrier. 
  • Similarly, the N type semiconductor consists of electrons as majority charge carrier and holes as minority charge carrier.

Types of Material

Majority charge carriers

Minority charge carriers

P type semiconductor



N type semiconductor



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