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## 16/11/2020

### Common Emitter Transistor Amplifier

• The common emitter transistor amplifier is shown in the figure A.
• The input signal is applied between base and emitter whereas the output is taken from collector and emitter.
• The output voltage equation VCE is given by

VCE = VCC – icRC

• As the input voltage increases in the positive half cycle, the base current increases.
• As IC = βIB, the collector current also increases due to base current increases.
• As the collector current increases, the collector to emitter voltage decreases because supply voltage VCC remains constant.

VCE = VCC – icRC

• As the signal voltage increases in the positive direction, the output voltage increases in the negative direction.
• It means that the output signal is 180 degree phase difference with input signal.

VCE = VCC – icRC

Differential above equation

dVCE = 0 – dicRC

dVCE = – dicRC

• The negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 degree out of phase with respect to input voltage.

Phase Reversal

• There is 180 degree phase reversal in the common emitter between input signal and output signal is known as phase reversal.
• The input positive signal increases in the positive direction, the output signal increases in the negative direction and vice versa in the common emitter transistor amplifier connection.
• Therefore we can say that there is 180 degree phase difference between input signal and output signal.

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