## 22/03/2020

### Counter Interview Question Answer - 1

Describe the function of the counter.

Function of the counter

The function of the counter is to count pulses.

It consists of set of flip flops whose state changes according to input to the counter.

How the counter is classified?

The counter may be

Synchronous

Asynchronous

Which is the simplest type of counter? Why?

Simplest counter

The asynchronous counter is the simplest type of counter because it is easy to design and requires least hardware for design of it.

Give the reason : The flip flops do not change the states at same time in the ripple counter.

The flip flops do not change the states at the same time in the ripple counter because all the flip flops are not triggered simultaneously.

Describe the disadvantage of the asynchronous counter. Which counter is used to overcome this disadvantage?

There is unwanted spike generated in the asynchronous counter. This disadvantage is carried out by using parallel counter.

Why the asynchronous counter is also called as ripple counter?

Ripple counter

The transition from first stage ripple through the last to the last stage is done via various inter – mediates stages.

Why the asynchronous counter is called as serial counters?

Serial counter

All the flip flops do not change state simultaneously in the asynchronous counter therefore it is called as serial counter.

Why the synchronous counter is called as Parallel counter?

Parallel counter

All the flip flops change its state simultaneously in the synchronous counter therefore it is called as parallel counter.

Which counter is also known as series counter?

Ripple counter

Why the synchronous counter is faster than the asynchronous counter?

The synchronous counter is faster than the asynchronous counter because of the synchronous counter has less propagation delay than that of asynchronous counter.

Explain the term : UP counter and DOWN counter

UP counter

It is a counter which counts in the upward direction i.e. 1, 2, 3……N

DOWN counter

It is a counter which counts in the downward direction i.e. n, n – 1, n – 2 …..1, 0.

Explain the term : State of the counter, Modulus of the counter, Full modulus counter

State of the counter

Each count of the counter is called as the state of the counter.

Modulus of the counter

It is defined as the number of states through the counter passes before it comes to its starting state.

The 3 bit counter has 8 states and it is called as divide by 8 counter.

Full modulus counter

It is defined as the counter which goes all the possible states before restarting.

Explain the term : Variable modulus counter, Terminal counter, Divide by N counter

Variable modulus counter

It is counter in which the maximum number of states changed.

Terminal counter

It is defined as the final state of the counter.

Divide by N counter

The mode N counter divides the input frequency by N therefore it is called as divide by N counter. i.e. mode 4 counter divides the input frequency by 4

What do you mean by mod – 16 counters?

Mod – 16 counter

It is a 4 bit counter which has 16 states.

What is meaning of the counter is shortened modulus?

Shortened modulus

It is a counter which does not utilize all its states. The some of the states are invalid or unutilized.

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