08/04/2021

Atoms, Molecules & Ions

 

Atoms

  • The smallest particle of any object is called as atoms. 
  • Every object is made of atoms. 
  • However, the entire world is made of matters. 
  • The atoms are very small and they measured in the nanometers. 
  • The relative size of hydrogen atom is 10 – 10 m.

        1 Nano meter = 10 – 9 m

Molecule

  • It is group of two or more atoms which are chemically bonded together, tightly together by attractive forces. 
  • It is defined as the smallest particle of an element / compound and show all properties of substance. 
  • The atoms of same element or different elements can join together to form molecules.

Monoatomic

  • The molecules of element is made up of only one atom of that element, example argon ( Ar ) and Helium ( He ).

Argon

Ar

Helium

He

Sodium

Na

Iron

Fe

Aluminum

Al

Copper

Cu

 

Diatomic

  • The molecules of element is made up of two atom of that element. 
  • The molecule of oxygen consists of two atoms of oxygen. Examples of Diatomic

Oxygen

O2

Nitrogen

N2

Hydrogen

H2

Chlorine gas

Cl2

 

Ions

  • The charged species ( total number of electrons is not equal to total number of protons ) are known as ions. 
  • The metals and non metals contain charged species. 
  • An ion is charged particle and can be positively or negatively charged. The ion may consist of single charged atom or group of atoms which have net charge of them.

Anion

  • A negative charged ion is called as Anion.

Cation

  • A positive charged ion is called as Cation.


You may also like :

Atomic Structure

Energy Band Diagram

What is hole current?

Intrinsic semiconductor & Extrinsic semiconductor


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