Types of Electric Vehicles | BEV | HEV | PHEV | FCEV

In this article main components and working of battery operation vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell electric vehicles and plug in electric vehicle is given.

Types of Electric Vehicles

There are four types of Electric Vehicles

Battery operated vehicles ( BEV ) 

  • These vehicles are fully powered by battery. 
  • They are more efficient as compared to hybrid and plug in hybrids. 
  • They are purely electrical vehicles and run entirely on a battery powered electric drivetrain. 
  • The battery pack is used to drive the vehicle. 
  • The charged battery provides power to one or more electric motors to run electric car.


Main components of BEV               

  • Electrical motor
  • Inverter
  • Battery
  • Control module
  • Drive train

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

  • It uses both the internal combustion engine and battery-operated motor power train. 
  • The petrol engine is used both to drive and charge when battery is empty.
  • These types of vehicles are not as efficient as fully electric or plug in hybrid vehicles. 
  • These HEVs are known as series hybrid or parallel hybrid. 
  • They have both engine and electric motor. 
  • The engine gets energy from fuel and motor gets electricity from batteries. 
  • The transmission is rotated simultaneously by both engine and electric motor.

Main components of HEV

  • Engine
  • Electric motor
  • Battery pack with controller and inverter
  • Fuel tank and
  • Control module

Working principle of HEV

  • The fuel tank supplies energy to the engine like a regular car. 
  • The batteries run on an electric motor. 
  • Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

  • It is known as zero emission vehicles. 
  • They employ fuel cell technology to generate electricity required to runs the vehicle. 
  • The chemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electric energy.


Main components of FCEV

  • Electric motor
  • Fuel cell stack
  • Hydrogen storage tank
  • Battery with converter and controller

Working principle of FCEV

  • The FCEV generates the electricity required to run this vehicle on the vehicle itself.

Examples of FCEV

  • Toyota Mirai
  • Riversimple Rasa
  •  Hyundai Tucson
  • FCEV
  • Honda Clarity fuel cell
  • Hyundai Nexo

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Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)

  • They are better known as series hybrids. 
  • They have both engine and motor. 
  • You can choose among the fuels, conventional fuel ( petrol or diesel ) or alternative fuel ( such as bio-diesel ) . 
  • It can be powered by rechargeable battery pack. The battery can be charged externally.

PHEV can operate in at least 2 modes.

All electric mode :  motor and battery provide energy for car.

Hybrid mode : both electricity and petrol / diesel are used to provide energy for car.


Main Component Of PHEV

  • Electric motor
  • Engine
  • Inverter
  • Battery
  • Fuel tank
  • Control module
  • Battery charges

Working Principle Of PHEV

  • PHEV operated on battery pack, once it is completely discharge, vehicle operated on non plug in hybrid mode operation. 
  • PHEVs can be charged by plugging into an outside electric power source, engine, or regenerative braking. 
  • When brakes are applied, the electric motor acts as generator using the energy to charge the battery. 
  • The engine power is supplemented by the electric motor, as a result, smaller engines can be used, which increases the car’s fuel efficiency without compromising performance.

Examples of PHEV

  • Porche Cayenne S E hybrid
  • BMW 330e
  • Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid
  • Chevy Volt
  • Chrysler Pacifica
  • Ford C Max Energi
  • Mercedes C350e
  • Mercedes S550e
  • Mercedes GLE550e
  • Mini Cooper SE Countryman
  • Ford Fusion Energi
  • Audi A3 E – Tron
  • BMW i8
  • BMW X5 xdrive40e
  • Fiat 500e
  • Hyundai Sonata
  • Kia Optima
  • Volvo XC90 T8

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