Types of Electric Vehicles | BEV | HEV | PHEV | FCEV

 Types of electrical vehicles

Battery operated vehicles ( BEV )

  • These vehicles are fully powered by battery. 
  • They are more efficient as compared to hybrid and plug in hybrids. 
  • They are purely electrical vehicles and run entirely on a battery powered electric drivetrain. 
  • The battery pack is used to drive the vehicle. 
  • The charged battery provides power to one or more electric motors to run electric car.


Main components of BEV              

  • Electrical motor
  • Inverter
  • Battery
  • Control module
  • Drive train

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)

  • It uses both the internal combustion engine and battery-operated motor power train. 
  • The petrol engine is used both to drive and charge when battery is empty.
  • These types of vehicles are not as efficient as fully electric or plug in hybrid vehicles. 
  • These HEVs are known as series hybrid or parallel hybrid. 
  • They have both engine and electric motor. 
  • The engine gets energy from fuel and motor gets electricity from batteries. 
  • The transmission is rotated simultaneously by both engine and electric motor.

Main components

  • Engine
  • Electric motor
  • Battery pack with controller and inverter
  • Fuel tank and
  • Control module

Working principle of HEV

  • The fuel tank supplies energy to the engine like a regular car. 
  • The batteries run on an electric motor. 
  • Both the engine and electric motor can turn the transmission at the same time.

Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV)

  • It is known as zero emission vehicles. 
  • They employ fuel cell technology to generate electricity required to runs the vehicle. 
  • The chemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electric energy.


Main components of FCEV

  • Electric motor
  • Fuel cell stack
  • Hydrogen storage tank
  • Battery with converter and controller

Working principle of FCEV

  • The FCEV generates the electricity required to run this vehicle on the vehicle itself.


  • Toyota Mirai
  • Riversimple Rasa
  •  Hyundai Tucson
  • FCEV
  • Honda Clarity fuel cell
  • Hyundai Nexo

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Plug in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)

  • They are better known as series hybrids. 
  • They have both engine and motor. 
  • You can choose among the fuels, conventional fuel ( petrol or diesel ) or alternative fuel ( such as bio-diesel ) . 
  • It can be powered by rechargeable battery pack. The battery can be charged externally.

PHEV can operate in at least 2 modes.

All electric mode :  motor and battery provide energy for car.

Hybrid mode : both electricity and petrol / diesel are used to provide energy for car.


Main component of PHEV :

  • Electric motor
  • Engine
  • Inverter
  • Battery
  • Fuel tank
  • Control module
  • Battery charges

Working principle of PHEV

  • PHEV operated on battery pack, once it is completely discharge, vehicle operated on non plug in hybrid mode operation. 
  • PHEVs can be charged by plugging into an outside electric power source, engine, or regenerative braking. 
  • When brakes are applied, the electric motor acts as generator using the energy to charge the battery. 
  • The engine power is supplemented by the electric motor, as a result, smaller engines can be used, which increases the car’s fuel efficiency without compromising performance.

Examples of PHEV

  • Porche Cayenne S E hybrid
  • BMW 330e
  • Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid
  • Chevy Volt
  • Chrysler Pacifica
  • Ford C Max Energi
  • Mercedes C350e
  • Mercedes S550e
  • Mercedes GLE550e
  • Mini Cooper SE Countryman
  • Ford Fusion Energi
  • Audi A3 E – Tron
  • BMW i8
  • BMW X5 xdrive40e
  • Fiat 500e
  • Hyundai Sonata
  • Kia Optima
  • Volvo XC90 T8

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