23/07/2022

Comparison Between Different Fuel Cells

Fuel cell types

Polymer

Electrolyte

Membrane

Fuel cell ( PEMFC )

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

( PAFC )

Alkaline Fuel Cell ( AFC )

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell         ( MCFC )

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell   ( SOFC )

Electrolyte

Perfluoro sulfonic acid

Phosphoric acid soaked in porous matrix

Alkaline polymer membrane

Molten lithium sodium / potassium carbonates soaked in porous matrix

Yttria stabilized zirconia

Operating temperature

< 120 degree C

150 – 200 degree C

< 100 degree C

600 – 700 degree C

500 – 1000 degree C

Advantages

Low weight and volume

Efficiency more than 85% when used for co-generation of electricity and heat

 

Lower carbonate formation as compared to liquid AFCs

Does not require external reformer to convert fuels as natural gas and biogas into hydrogen

High efficiency

Low temperature operation

 

Low operating temperature

 

Fuel flexibility

Solid electrolyte reduces corrosion and electrolyte management systems

 

Quick start up

Less cost as compared to alkaline, phosphoric and PEM fuel cells

Solid electrolyte

Quick start up and load following

 

 

Improved efficiency as compared to phosphoric acid fuel cell plant

Hybrid / gas turbine cycle

Disadvantages/ challenges

Expensive catalysts

Sensitive to fuel impurities

 

Long start up time

 

CO2 as byproduct which affect cell performance and durability

Less durable

 

High temperature operation leads to corrosion and breakdown of cell components

Addition cost required for reactor to reduce carbon monoxide

 

Carbon monoxide easily binds with platinum catalyst at the anode which decreases efficiency

 

Recirculate electrolyte operation reduce effect of carbonate formation on the electrolyte but increases corrosion and difficult to hand different pressure

Operate at higher temperature which leads to corrosion and breakdown of cell components

 

 

 

Higher cost due to platinum catalyst

 

Slow start up

 

Slow start up

 

Large size and heavy

 

Low power density

Transportation not possible

 

Sulphur sensitivity

 

 

 

Thermal shielding for personal protection

Application

Portable power

 

Distributed generation

Military space

transportation

Electrical utility

Auxiliary power

 

Back-up power

 

Backup power

Distributed generation

Electric utility

Primarily used for transportation applications

 

 

Industrial and military operations

Distributed generation

Some stationary applications

Vehicles like cars, buses, and heavy-duty trucks

 

 

 

 

Electrical efficiency

60% direct

40%

60%

50%

60%

Stack size

< 1 to 100 kW

 

5 – 400 kW, 100 kw module ( liquid PAFC ) < 10 kW ( Polymer membrane )

1 – 100 kW

300 kW to 3 MW and 300 kW module

 

1 kW – 2 MW




No comments:

Post a Comment