The following are main methods for the
study of electrical machines.

Conventional method

- It is assumed that working principles of induction machines, DC machines and synchronous machines are different in this method of study of electrical machine.
- The study of these machines is done separately.
- This method is useful for the design and production of rotating machines.
- However the principle of emf and production of torque is same in all the machines but importance is given only for the steady state characteristics of the machines.

**Generalized method**

- The study of all the rotating machines is made using tensors in this method.
- The voltage and current both are vector quantities.
- The solution of different equations can be obtained by tensors mathematical method in which combines the vector quantities and matrix.
- The main drawback of this method is that the study of electrical machines is made only by mathematical model.
- It does not any concern with emf, torque and action / reaction theory in the machine.

Unified theory

- It is mentioned that the method of producing magnetic field in the different machines, the method of electrical connections and also characteristics of the different machines are different in the unified theory.
- The importance is given to the emf and torque produced in the rotating machines.
- The study of this method is done by the following steps.

To
prepare electrical circuit for different electrical machines.

To
write mathematical equations from electrical circuits.

To
know the relations of energy conversion in them.

To
write the equations of the motion.

- The electrical circuit consists of resistance R and inductance L.
- The value of inductance L is not constant but changing instantaneously therefore the study of this method is done by following ways.

(2) Transient state condition

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