Fuel Cell : Hydrogen Production & Applications

Hydrogen Production, Storage, Transportation and Applications 

  • The current global demand of hydrogen is 70 million metric ton per year in terms of energy it is around 330 million. 
  • Most of the hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels ( 76% form natural gas, 23% from coal and remaining from electrolysis of water ) which consumes 6% of global natural gas and 2% of global coal, result in CO2 emission of 830 Mt per year. 
  • Most of CO2 is not captured, only 130 Mt is captured and used in fertilizer industry.
  • The production of hydrogen from non fossil fuel will increase and greater renewable deployment. 
  • Depending upon feedstock is used, hydrogen production can be reforming, gasification, pyrolysis, fermentation, electrolysis or photolysis. 
  • However the most widely used method for hydrogen production includes steam methane reforming, methanol reforming, gasification, partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, auto thermal reforming, coal gasification, electrolysis of water and thermochemical processes. 
  • The production of hydrogen by biomass gasification and photocatalytic or photoelectrochemical is at research level. 
  • Partial oxidation of oil produces large quantities of hydrogen and it is efficient method.

Applications of Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is importance raw materials for chemical industry, petroleum refining, food processing, metal processing etc. 
  • It is also used in hydrotreatment process like hydrodesulphurization, hydro-denitrogenating and hydrocracking processes. 
  • Most of the hydrogen produced is used for oil refining ( 33% ), ammonia ( 27% ), methanol production ( 11% ) and steel production ( 3% ) and others. The cost of hydrogen production as per MNRE analysis is given here.

Methos of hydrogen production

Rs per Kg

Steam Methane Reforming


Coal gasification


Biomass gasification


Biomass microbial


Electrolyzer Alkaline



cost of hydrogen production per kg

The applications of hydrogen are also extended too the

  • Fuel cell vehicles
  • Hydrogen hybrid vehicles
  • Power generations
  • Chemical industries
  • Fertilizer industry
  • refineries

Hydrogen Production

The production of hydrogen is done by following methods.

  • Steam methane reforming ( SMR )
  • Partial oxidation ( POx )
  • Coal gasification
  • Biomass gasification and pyrolysis
  • Electrolysis and photolysis
  • Thermo chemical processes

Hydrogen Storage

  • Compressed gas in underground caverns
  • Compressed gas in tank
  • Cryo compressed tanks
  • Liquefied form
  • Solid state form

Hydrogen Transportation

  • Pipeline for compressed hydrogen
  • Compressed gas tube trailers
  • Liquefied hydrogen truck
  • HCNG blended
  • High energy density carriers

hydrogen feedstock, production and application

You may also like to read these articles :

ABCD Parameter of the Transmission Line

ABCD Parameter of the Short Transmission Line

Size of Earthing Conductor in Rotating Machines

Importance of Load Factor & Diversity Factor

ABCD Parameters of Medium Transmission Line : Nominal π method

ABCD Parameters of Medium Transmission Line : Nominal T Method

ABCD Parameters of Medium Transmission Line : End Condenser  Method


No comments:

Post a Comment