9 January 2018

Charge, Current , Power , Potential and Potential Difference

Charge and current

  • The law of conservation of energy states that the charge can neither created nor destroyed, it can only transferable from one place to another place. 
  • Therefore the algebraic sum of all charge in an electrical circuit is equal to zero.
  • The electrical charge is mobile therefore it can be transferred to one place to another. 
  • The positive charge moves in one direction whereas the negative charge moves in the other direction. 
  • The motion of electrical charge creates electrical current in a closed circuit. 
  • The Benjamin Franklin invented that the conventional direction of electrical current is opposite to negative charge or electron. There is a following relation between charge and current.
                  i = dq / dt
                 q = ∫ i dt

Direct current ( DC ) or direct voltage

  • If the magnitude of current or voltage does not change with time, it is called as direct current. 
  • The magnitude of direct voltage and current remains constant with respect to time.

Alternating current ( AC )  or alternating voltage

  • If the magnitude of current or voltage changes sinusoidal with time, it is called as alternating current. 
  • The alternating supply may be single phase or three phase.

ac-voltage-and-dc-voltage.png

Voltage or Potential

  • It is defined as the work done in bringing a positive charge of one coulomb from infinity to that point against magnetic field. 
  • The potential is equal to work done per unit charge. 
  • The earth is taken as reference potential zero because the potential of earth remains constant in spite of it keeps and losing charge.
        One voltage = Work done / Charge
                           = Joule / Coulomb

EMF ( Electro – motive Force )

  • It is force that requires moving electrons to produce an electrical current. 
  • It is better known as EMF or battery source. It is measured in voltage. 
  • The word force is used for electrical potential not for mechanical force.
                                         OR
  • It is source of energy that causes electrical current to flow in the given closed circuit.

Potential difference

  • It is defined as potential difference of one voltage between two points if one joule of work is done for shifting a point charge from one point to other point. 
  • The potential difference between two points is considered by considering one point as reference potential. 
  • Let us consider that the potential of point is + 10 V as compared to potential of point B. Similarly the potential of point P is – 10 V as compared to potential of point Q.potential.png

Power

  • It is defined as rate doing work. It is a scalar quantity. The unit of power is watt or joule per second in the honour of James watt.
        P = dW / dt
        dW = Rate of work
          dt = Rate of change of time
        Therefore 
              P = dW / dt
                 = ( dW / dq ) ( dq / dt )
                 = VI
                 = I2R  ( V = IR )
                 = V2 / R ( I = V / R )

  • If the voltage and current are time varying quantity, the power is called as instantaneous power. 
  • Therefore the power is defined as the product of voltage across element and current passes through element. 
  • The power has positive sign if it is delivered to load it means that voltage and current both have positive sign. 
  • The power has negative sign if it is delivered from load it means that either voltage or current has negative sign not both.
       Therefore

  • Power absorbed = – Power supplied

Law of conservation of power

  • The algebraic sum of power in a circuit is equal to zero. Therefore