## 02/10/2017

### Working Principle of DC Motor

Electrical Motor
An Electric motor is a machine which converts electrical input energy into mechanical output energy.
• When a current carrying conductor is placed in magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given by Fleming's left hand rule.
• The magnitude of the force experienced by the conductor is given by

F = B I L sin q
Where F = Force in Newton
B = Maximum flux density in Weber/meter2, it is a vector
quantity
I = Current in Ampere
L = Length of conductor in meter
q  = Angle between position of conductor and direction of
magnetic field.
• When q = 90° ( conductor and magnetic field are mutually perpendicular ) force produced on the conductor is maximum.
• If  q  = 0° ( conductor and magnetic field is parallel ) force produced on the conductor is zero.

How does the rotor ( armature ) rotate?

• When the DC supply is given to the motor, a direct current passes through brushes, commutator and armature winding
• When it passes through commutator, it converts DC into AC
• Therefore the group of conductors under the influence of N – pole and S - pole carry currents in the reverse direction.

• The two pole DC Motor is shown in the Figure C.
• Let the current in the armature conductors be outward under the influence of N – pole ( Shown by dots ) and inwards under the influence of S - pole ( Shown by Crosses ).
• The direction of force on each conductor can be determined by applying Fleming's left hand rule.

Fleming's Left hand rule
• If the first finger shows a direction of magnetic field and middle finger shows a direction of current, thumbs indicates the direction of force.
• The conductors experience force in the clockwise direction as shown in the Figure C.
• These force collectively produces a driving torque resulting armature rotates in the clockwise direction.
• When the rotor rotates, there is always an equal and opposite torque on the stator that is why it is very important to bolt a motor securely.

#### 1 comment:

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