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09/10/2021

Waste to Energy │Bio Gas │Bio CNG

 

Generation of waste from industries and urbanization leads to threat to environment. This article is related to types of organic waste and energy generated from the waste. There are following types of waste : organic waste, e waster, hazardous waste.

Organic waste

  • Waste which degrades or broken down by microorganism over the time
  • Organic wastes are carbon-based compounds
  • Significant portion of overall waste generation in industries / agricultural section
  • The organic waste is further classified as Biodegradable waste and Non – biodegradable waste

Biodegradable waste

Non – biodegradable waste

  • It consists of organics that can be utilized for food by naturally occurring microorganisms within a reasonable length of time. It is basically
  • Solid waste like food waster, leaves from trees, paper, clothes etc
  • Waste from poultry farms
  • AGRO residue
  • Food processing rejections
  • Waste from dairy , sugar, paper, oil extraction plant, leather industries etc.

 

  • It has very low degradation rate.
  • It includes wooden furniture, agricultural dry waster, baggage, discarded clothes, cartons, cardboard, pouches

 

 

Waste to Energy

  • To recover energy from the waste in the form of Electricity and Biogas / Synthetic gas

Bio-methanation

  • It is anaerobic digestion of organic materials which is converted into gas.
  •  The Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial fermentation process that operates without oxygen, which produces biogas contains methane ( 60% ), carbon dioxide ( 40% )  and other gases. 
  • It gives biogas as well as manure as the end product. 
  • The organic waste produced by kitchens, canteens, hotels, vegetable markets etc are used in the Bio- methanation process.
  • The bio gas generated from this process can be used directly in to gas burner to produce heat for cooking purpose / industrial applications. The gas engine is used to produce electricity.

                                                 OR

  • The biogas can be cleaned to remove carbon dioxide and other gases to produce BIOCNG. 
  • This BIOCNG is used in the vehicle as fuel.

Summary

Organic waste

Output

20 – 25 kg of organic waste

1 meter cube biogas

                     OR

2 units of electricity

                    OR

0.4 KGs of Bio CNG

 

Gasification

  • It is a process that uses high temperature in the presence of limited amount of oxygen to decompose material to produce synthetic gas ( mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen ) . 
  • The Bio gas, AGRO residues are used in the gasifier to produce synthetic gas. This gas can be used for thermal and power generation purposes.

Pyrolysis

  • It uses heat to break down combustible materials in the absence of oxygen, which produces a mixture of combustible gases ( methane, complex hydro carbon, hydrogen and carbon monoxide ) , liquid. 
  • The output or product of pyrolysis process is

  1. Gas mixture
  2. Liquid
  3. Carbon black

  • The gas generated in this process can be used in the boilers to provide heat. The main purpose of pyrolysis is to minimize emissions.

Waste to Energy Plant in India as on 31.3.2021

State

Capacity

Punjab

10.75 MW

Delhi

52 MW

Madhya Pradesh

15.4 MW

Maharashtra

12.59 MW

Karnataka

1

Tamil Nadu

6.4

Andhra Pradesh

23.16

Telangana

45.8

 

Scope of energy generation from waste


Sectors

Types of waste

Energy Potential (MW )

Urban liquid waste

Liquid waste

375

Paper

Liquid waste

254

Processing and preserving of meat

Liquid waste

182

Processing and preserving of fish

Liquid waste

17

Milk processing

Liquid waste

24

Maize starch

Liquid waste

47

Tapioca starch

Liquid waste

36

Sugar

Liquid waste

49

Distillery

Liquid waste

781

Slaughter house

Liquid waste

263

Tanneries

Liquid waste

9

Total

2037

Sectors

Types of waste

Energy Potential ( MW )

Urban solid waste

Solid waste

1247

Processing and preserving of meat

Solid waste

13

Vegetable processing

Solid waste

3

Vegetable raw

Solid waste

579

Fruit processing

Solid waste

8

Fruit raw

Solid waste

203

Palm oil

Solid waste

2

Sugar press mud

Solid waste

200

Slaughter house

Solid waste

48

Cattle farm

Solid waste

862

Poultry

Solid waste

462

Chicory

Solid waste

1

Tanneries

Solid waste

10

Total

3638

 



 


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